Meadows are formed as a result of traditional human activities such as grazing and mowing. They enrich the landscape and host a vast diversity of species.

Wooded meadows are sparsely wooded natural stands with regularly mowed herb layer. They are one of the most unique types of Estonian plant communities and you can often find numerous species of rare Northern orchids in them.


Coastal meadows are famous as habitats of several threatened species such as the natterjack toad, dunlin and black-tailed godwit. They are also very important for migrating birds.

Flooded meadows provide good nesting sites for corncrake and great snipe.

The meadow communities in coastal areas of West and North Estonia where limestone outcrops almost reach the ground and soil is very shallow are called alvars by botanists. Traditionally alvars have been used for grazing sheep. You can find alvars only in Estonia and Sweden, just few also in Russia.