The most important churches in Tallinn were established in the 13th century. The Toom School in Toompea also probably functioned during that time, but the first written mentions of that are from the beginning of the 14th century. In the beginning of the 15th century, the monastery of the Bridgettines Order or the Bridgettine Convent was founded to the east of the city.
Throughout history, Tallinn has been under Swedish as well as Russian rule and that has left its mark on the development of the city as well as on the cityscape. By the order of Peter I, a construction of a war harbour began and admiralty workshops were established to build and supply war ships.
The modern era and the winds of change
In 1805, Tallinn’s first elementary schools and Tallinn’s Governate Gymnasium were established. In 1819, Tallinn was divided into seven city districts. In addition to the suburbs, there were around 40 summer manors around the city.
In 1870, the Baltic Railway connecting Tallinn to St. Petersburg opened, meaning trade and industries could enliven and develop. So in the 19th century, the number of residents in Tallinn grew and the suburbs widened. In 1888, a tram started to service people in Tallinn, which during that time was a horse-powered tram or a horsecar.
Between the 19th and the 20th century, the level of education and the economic situation of Estonians had improved and the Estonian nationalism livened due to that. The first Estonian mayor, Voldemar Lender, was elected in 1906.
Both World Wars left their mark on the city, the number of residents plummeted and many buildings were damaged in World War II. In the years after the war, however, the number of residents started to rise quickly, industry and production grew, and new districts arose.